The construction sector continues to adapt to the challenges posed by climatechange. Architects and engineers aim to build sustainable, energy, resource, andcost-efficient structures by increasingly using bio-based building materials. How-ever, fire safety has always been a significant concern for timber building con-struction internationally. The objective of the study presented in this art icle is todocument fire hazards of compressed straw when used a s thermal and acousticinsulation within wood-framed building assemblies. Three densities of com-pressed straw (75, 125, and 175 kg/m3) were selected and their combustion andthermal responses were evaluated at various scales, in attempt to define the opti-mal density considering various factors. The performance of the straw was alsocompared with commerci ally available insulationmaterialsandthentestedunderexposure to severe heating in medium-scale wood-framed assemblies to evaluatethe impac ts of the straw as compared wi th a noncombustible insulation. The com-pressedstrawwithadensityof75kg/m3was found to have the best behaviorwith respect to both reactions to fire and insulation properties. T he results sug-gest that compressed may have similar or better behavior under the heating con-ditions investigated when compared to a commercially available combustibleinsulation material. The use of this material as a primary insulation i n a buildings isconsidered manageable by thoughtful design, construction, and building use with-out unduly increasing risks associated with fire.